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The Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Inventories 1.1 (GPC 1.1) offers cities and local governments a robust, transparent, and globally accepted framework to identify, calculate consistently, and report on city greenhouse gas emissions. This version is an update to the original Global Protocol for Community-Scale Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories  published in 2014. GPC 1.1 has been revised to align with the 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories to clarify ambiguities and to provide further methodological guidance. Table 1.2 in GPC 1.1 provides a comprehensive list of the updates made to the GPC 2014 version.​

IEA reports

  • “Fossil fuel consumption subsidies rose to a record of over $1 trillion in 2022 amid the global energy crisis….”

  • “Almost all of the consumption subsidies … were in emerging and developing economies….”

  • “Governments took various measures to protect consumers from the worst effects of the energy crisis. The most common, as usual, was to fix end-user tariffs or to cap fuel or electricity price increases. For example, the Peruvian government decided in April 2022 to temporarily include several transport fuels in the State Fuel Price Stabilization Fund to curb the price rise. Many advanced European economies limited consumer exposure to the full impact of spiraling natural gas prices. Thailand introduced a price cap of THB 30 (USD 0.85) per liter of diesel. Some successful subsidy reform programs were interrupted: Egypt, for example, extended electricity subsidies, which it had planned to phase out by the end of the 2021-2022 fiscal year...”

Fossil fuel consumption subsidies by fuel, 2010-2022
Government consumer measures to reduce energy bills during the energy crisis
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